Can Bunions Be Corrected Without Surgery ? 5 Facts from Studies

can bunions be corrected without surgery

Can you really fix a bunion without surgery? How to correct a bunion without surgery, or even prevent the development or worsening of a bunion?

What rehabilitation and natural treatments are available? When should surgery be considered? My goal is to provide practical advice and reassure you about this condition.

ℹ️ These recommendations apply whether you have a mild hallux valgus or a more severe form.

I will provide my opinion as a physical therapist. As always, my opinion is based on:

  • My experience as a certified physical therapist with patients since 2009.
  • Extensive research and reading of studies published on the subject in international medical literature. References are provided at the end of the article.

⚠️ The quality of publicly available information on the internet is often low. This is even the case with YouTube videos published by doctors on hallux valgus. That is why I have taken care to follow expert recommendations on creating high-quality content (Sari 2021).

Do you still have unanswered questions? Comments to make, experience to share? The comment area is there for you!

Happy reading 🙂 !

Here’s a video of me summarizing this article. However, it’s in French! You can display English subtitles by clicking on the gear icon (Subtitles>Auto-translate>English) 🙂

What does bunion/hallux valgus mean?

These pieces of information will give you a more precise idea of what hallux valgus (also known as a bunion) is and the signs that can help diagnose it.

It is important to note that it is the most common foot deformity, with 36% of individuals over 65 years old having bunion (Nix 2010).

What are the symptoms? Definition and symptoms of bunion

Medically, hallux valgus / bunion is defined as a deviation between:

  • The first metatarsal bone in the forefoot, which turns inward instead of being aligned (varus).
  • The bones of the big toe, which orient outward (valgus).
diagram of right bunion
The two phalanges of the big toe can be seen orienting outward, towards the other toes. At the base of the big toe, a “bunion” forms, which is a kind of bump. Image source: Epitact YouTube video.

You may come across terms such as “hallux valgus”, “metatarsus varus,” “metatarsus abductus,” “hallux abductus,” or degrees of deformity angulation such as 10°, 15°, or 20°.

However, treatment of bunion without surgery follows the same general principles, and it is your discomfort and desired activities that should guide therapeutic or preventive measures, rather than a specific degree or type of deformity.

The main symptoms of bunion include:

  • Pain in the area of the big toe that may radiate around. These pains can occur during walking, at rest, or at night.
  • Deviation of the big toe, which leans outward and toward the other toes. This deviation can cause the head of the metatarsal bone to protrude, forming a bunion. It is a kind of bump on the lower and inner side of the big toe.
  • Decreased flexibility and mobility of the big toe, particularly laterally but also in flexion and extension.
  • Skin problems on the sole of the foot where the big toe is located, or on the inner side of the foot in the same area: calluses, blisters, redness, etc.
  • Difficulty in wearing shoes, discomfort when wearing certain tight-fitting shoes in the forefoot area.
picture of right bunion
Hallux valgus of 20°: The big toe leans toward the other toes, and its base protrudes (bunion). This deformity is not always associated with pain or discomfort. Image source: Wülker N, Mittag F. The treatment of hallux valgus. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012;109(49):857-868. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2012.0857

Sometimes only one of these symptoms is present, and other times, all of them may be present. It also depends on the stage of development of bunion.

Pain around the big toe associated with a deformity (the big toe leaning toward the other toes) is characteristic of bunion. Regardless of the specific type and degree of deformity, it is primarily the discomfort and individual expectations that will guide the treatment approach.

Who should you consult for bunion?

If you feel the need to discuss your foot problem with a healthcare professional, you can consult:

  • Your general practitioner.
  • A physiotherapist.
  • A sports medicine physician.

These professionals will ask you questions and examine you to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of bunion. They can discuss with you the advantages and disadvantages of different treatments for hallux valgus in your case. They may also refer you to a podiatrist or an orthopedic surgeon if it is deemed necessary.

General practitioners, physiotherapists, and sports medicine physicians can be consulted for bunion.

Is an X-ray necessary?

The diagnosis of bunion can be made without an X-ray. X-rays do not provide us with additional information to choose the most appropriate treatment. In fact, there is no specific degree of deformity that would automatically indicate the need for surgery. It depends on many factors, and the degree of deformity is just one of them.

Moreover, the “severity” of the deformity observed on an X-ray does not necessarily mean that bunion is severe or will worsen. Some people with a very “poor” X-ray can still have a very good quality of life, and the opposite is also true (Gordon 2022).

Therefore, an X-ray is only useful if you are considering surgery and the orthopedic surgeon requires one. In that case, the surgeon will likely want to have a radiographic image before the intervention, in addition to the X-rays taken afterwards to assess the success of the surgery.

X-ray is used to more accurately measure the m1 p1 angle between the metatarsal and the first phalanx of the thumb.

picture of bunion xray
X-ray of a person with hallux valgus. In most cases, an X-ray does not provide any additional information for diagnosis and treatment, so it is not necessary to have one. Image: Wülker N, Mittag F. The treatment of hallux valgus. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012;109(49):857-868. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2012.0857

MRI, CT scan, and ultrasound therapy are not recommended.

In most cases, an X-ray is not necessary for bunion, unless you have decided to undergo surgery. Furthermore, an X-ray showing a “severe” deformity does not necessarily mean that you will experience more discomfort or pain.

At what age can a bunion develop?

Is it normal to have bunion when you’re young? It depends on what we mean by “normal”; however, we can say that it is not uncommon for young individuals, including minors, to have bunion.

What age do kids get bunions?

Yes, some children can have bunion. It is referred to as juvenile hallux valgus if the person with bunion is under 18 years old.

8% of people under 18 years old have bunion; specifically, 6% of boys and 15% of girls.

These numbers can provide perspective on the occurrence of hallux valgus at a young age: it is quite common.

Bunion possible from 20-25 years old?

Considering that 8% of young individuals already have bunion, and its frequency increases with age, having bunion in your twenties is not a cause for concern in itself.

It may be bothersome, but it is relatively common in the general population.

Bunion is more common around 30-45 years old

23% of people between 18 and 65 years old have bunion. This increases to 36% among people over 65 years old.

The risk of hallux valgus increases with age. Women have a higher prevalence than men: 30% of women between 18 and 65 years old compared to 13% of men in the same age group (Nix 2010).

In 1 out of 5 adults over 50 years old, hallux valgus develops within 7 years (Menz 2021).

Even children can have bunion (8% of them, in fact!). The prevalence of bunion increases with age.

What causes bunion?

Bunion has a genetic component, meaning that some individuals are more predisposed to develop this foot deformity. It is partly hereditary (Kuhn 2021).

However, there is a factor that can be influenced: the type of shoes we wear. It has been observed that the risk of bunion is increased in individuals who wear:

  • Tight shoes, particularly in the forefoot area.
  • High heels (Menz 2016).

People with certain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout are also at a higher risk of developing bunion (Kuhn 2021). The risk is also higher for individuals in poor overall physical health (Menz 2021).

⚠️ Some people wonder if emotional /psychological causes can be behind bunion. This is sometimes suggested by therapists. However, based on our knowledge of foot biomechanics, there is no valid reason to believe that an emotional factor can be the cause.

The only probable cause of bunion that can be influenced is to avoid wearing high heels or shoes that are particularly tight in the forefoot area.

What are the consequences and progression of bunion?

How does bunion progress, and does it have effects beyond the foot?

In people aged 50 who already have hallux valgus at that age, the condition worsens in only one-third of these individuals over a span of 7 years (Menz 2021). In 2 years, among people of a similar age, bunion worsens in only one out of six people (Shinohara 2022).

In children with bunion, the deformity stabilizes or increases very little after the age of 10 (Sund 2019).

It’s important to note that some people whose bunion worsens over time may never feel the need to seek treatment. Even with the presence of deformity, pain, and discomfort, they can adapt their footwear and live comfortably, even in cases of significant deformity where the big toe overlaps completely with the other toes.

Bunion does not necessarily worsen over time, and it generally does not have repercussions beyond the foot.

How to improve bunion without surgery? Physical therapy

Some people who are greatly bothered by their bunion wish to seek treatment. In such cases, there are two types of treatment options:

  1. Conservative treatment: Allowing time for natural changes, undergoing rehabilitation/physical therapy, performing exercises, using natural remedies, and wearing splints/orthoses.
  2. Surgical treatment for hallux valgus.

First, let’s discuss conservative treatment, specifically what can be done by physiotherapists or independently. It’s important to understand what aspects we hope to have an impact on:

  • Deformation: Reducing the angle of deformity.
  • Pain: Alleviating pain.
  • Function: Achieving improved functionality.

Numerous studies have evaluated the impact of different conservative treatments on these three parameters. Several research teams have attempted to synthesize their findings. Here is the conclusion reached by the most recent publication on the subject (April 2021):

A combination of exercises, toe separators, night splints, and dry needling could be the best choice for reducing the angle of hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle.
Additionally, toe separators (with or without exercise), dry needling, and manipulations (with or without ice treatment) could have benefits in improving the subjective sensation of patients with hallux valgus deformity.
Multidisciplinary conservative treatments may have potential for hallux valgus deformity. However, high-quality studies are still needed in the future.

Ying et al. 2021

It is important to distinguish between techniques that primarily affect short-term pain relief (due to placebo effects) and those that offer the potential for significant limitation of bunion deformity.

To guide my patients toward one approach over another, I tend to propose options that are:

  • More likely to be effective in the medium to long term.
  • Associated with fewer potential side effects.
  • Less time-consuming, energy-consuming, and costly.
  • Require minimal reliance on a third person or specific equipment.

Taking all of this into account, here is what I recommend for non surgical bunion treatment:

  • Regularly perform a few self-mobilization exercises for the big toe (at least once a week for a few seconds; adjust based on pain and stiffness).
  • If not overly bothersome, combine this with the use of toe separators or a night splint. Alternatively, simply wear toe separators if performing exercises is too cumbersome for you.

To prevent the worsening or onset of bunion, regular self-mobilization exercises and the use of toe separators or night orthoses can be beneficial.

How to straighten big toe without surgery? These are three simple exercises that can be performed for bunion.

Selection of the 3 most relevant exercises against bunion

Some exercises are biomechanically coherent for bunion. These are the ones that mobilize the big toe in the opposite direction of stiffness and deformity. And more generally, those that help maintain good mobility of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal.

Here is a summary sheet of these exercises against bunion. There are intentionally few exercises listed: my goal is to select the most relevant and easy-to-implement exercises for independent practice.

3 exercices for bunion: pictures

Hallux valgus correction protocol

How often should these exercises be done to get rid of bunion without surgery? For how long?

An ideal answer would be: as often as possible as long as they don’t cause pain (or if the pain returns to its initial level within minutes after the exercise). In practice, you may not want to spend all your time mobilizing your toe! So, I would say:

  • Even doing them once a month for ten seconds is better than not doing them at all.
  • Doing them every day or almost every day for a few tens of seconds is already great.
  • You may feel the need to do them more often during periods when you feel more stiff; that’s also a good alternative.

Should you visit a physical therapist to perform exercises for hallux valgus?

Is it necessary to go to a physical therapist to fix bunions without surgery? In my opinion, a physical therapist can help you:

  • Understand how to properly perform self-mobilization of the big toe.
  • Adapt the type and appropriate dosage of exercises for your case.
  • Answer your questions and discuss the relevant orthosis for you.

One to three physical therapy consultations/sessions seem sufficient for the purpose of prevention and limiting the worsening of bunion. And if you feel that you don’t need assistance and can find enough relevant content to manage this issue on your own, that’s perfectly fine too! 🙂

Equipment for exercises against hallux valgus?

Lastly, what should we think of training belts or bands that are placed between the two big toes for exercises? Personally, I always prefer to recommend exercises that can be done without any equipment, when possible, as they are easier to implement.

I don’t believe these bands provide any additional benefits compared to the simpler exercises I described, but considering their low price (around $6 on Amazon), I understand that some people may want to give them a try.

Mobilization exercises for bunion can be performed independently. The aim is to preserve the mobility of the big toe.

What kind of shoes do you wear with bunions?

As we have seen, the main cause of bunion that we can “easily” address is the shoe we wear. Therefore, we should avoid:

  • High heels.
  • Tight shoes, especially in the forefoot area.

These recommendations apply regardless of the stage of progression of the deformity.

Footwear to avoid/worsen bunion
Examples of shoes not recommended and recommended with bunion

❌ Not recommended:

  • High heels with narrow toe boxes.
  • Pointed-toe shoes.
  • Tight-fitting shoes with narrow toe boxes.

✅ Recommended:

  • Shoes with a wide toe box.
  • Low-heeled or flat shoes.
  • Shoes with good arch support.
  • Adjustable shoes or shoes with stretchable materials.
  • Orthopedic shoes or shoes with orthotic inserts.

Remember, choosing the right shoes is important in managing and preventing the worsening of bunion.

Can you play sports with bunions?

Great news: all sports can be practiced with hallux valgus! There are no contraindications, and no sport is likely to worsen the deformity.

However, engaging in certain sports such as:

  • Running,
  • Trail running,
  • Hiking,
  • Soccer,
  • And any sport involving running,

may increase discomfort and pain. It is important to adjust the frequency, duration, and intensity of sports sessions, gradually increasing them to find the right balance.

All sports can be practiced with bunion. It just requires adjusting the dosage.

Can orthotics help bunions?

Do orthotics effectively prevent the development, progression, or need for surgery for bunion?

Here is a list of words commonly used to refer to orthotics for bunion:

  1. Corrector
  2. Splint
  3. Brace
  4. Pads
  5. Support
  6. Device
  7. Separator
  8. Spacer
  9. Adjuster
  10. Alignment aid
  11. Corrective aid
  12. Toe straightener
  13. Bunion regulator
  14. Hallux valgus orthotic
  15. Foot realignment aid
  16. Footwear accessory for hallux valgus

Are orthotics effective in preventing the onset, worsening, or the need for surgery for bunion?

First, let’s clarify three things:

  1. The type of brace, orthotic, or toe separator being discussed:
    • Daytime corrective orthotic (also known as dynamic orthotic)
    • Nighttime corrective orthotic (also known as static orthotic)
  2. The criteria for determining their effectiveness:
    • Reduction in pain
    • Decrease in toe deformity
    • Improvement in walking pattern
    • Ability to engage in more physical activities
    • Delay in the need for surgery
    • Enhancement of overall quality of life
  3. The expected duration of improvement.

Here’s what a recent synthesis of studies (involving a few hundred individuals across 9 studies) reveals:

Dynamic orthotics and static orthotics with a toe separator help reduce the deformity angle by approximately 2.1° to 5.79° (and alleviate pain) in patients with hallux valgus.
The effect of orthotic treatment with a toe separator on angle correction is more significant than that of dynamic orthotics.
However, users may prefer the thinner, more aesthetically pleasing, and easier-to-use dynamic orthotics.

Kwan 2021

However, obtaining more precise and reliable data on the following aspects remains challenging:

  • The specific extent of pain reduction to expect
  • Whether wearing orthotics enables increased walking capacity
  • The duration of the positive effect after discontinuing orthotic use
  • Whether they can truly delay or prevent the need for surgery

Wearing static or dynamic orthotics during the day or night can provide pain relief and reduce the deformity angle.

What models of corrector and splints against bunion exist?

Here is a list of bunion orthotic brands that English-speaking internet users search for the most information on:

  • Epitact
  • Valguloc
  • Scholl
  • Compeed
  • Actytoe
  • Orliman
  • Podonov
  • Feetpad
  • Bunion Bootie
  • Dr. Frederick’s Original
  • ViveSole
  • Pedifix
  • Bunion Aid
  • Bunion Corrector
  • ProCare
  • Bunion Sleeve
  • Aidera

Overall, they are all designed based on similar principles. In my opinion, significant differences should not be expected among them. You can find these orthotics at supermarkets, pharmacies, paramedical equipment stores, certain sports or shoe stores, and even second-hand through platforms!

Here are some orthotics that may be suitable:

Night Adjustable Bunion Valgus Protective
⭐⭐⭐⭐ 3,9/5 – 368 reviews
✅ Suitable for most sizes (5-11 in the US)
  • night orthosis bunion review
Visco-GEL ‘Stay-Put’ Toe Spacers
⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ 4,5/5 – 81 reviews
✅ 4 spacers
  • toe spacer hallux valgus

There is no reason to believe that one model of orthotic is truly superior to another for bunion. If you want to get an orthotic to try to limit deformity and discomfort, choose based on your own criteria (perceived comfort, aesthetics, compatibility with your footwear, etc.).

And what about insoles for bunion?

From a biomechanical perspective, there are more reasons to believe that braces/orthotics are more effective than insoles for bunion.

Here’s what a research team from Cochrane (the largest independent international association of health researchers) has to say about custom-made insoles (made by a podiatrist) for hallux valgus based on a trial conducted on 209 individuals:

After 6 months, custom orthopedic insoles improve foot pain by an additional 9 points on a scale of 0 to 100 (from a maximum of 17 points to a minimum of 1 point) compared to no treatment.

After 6 months, surgery improves foot pain by an additional 10 points on a scale of 0 to 100 (from a maximum of 18 points to a minimum of 2 points) compared to custom orthopedic insoles.

After 12 months, surgery improves foot pain by an additional 17 points on a scale of 0 to 100 (from a maximum of 25 points to a minimum of 9 points) compared to custom orthopedic insoles.

Cochrane 2008

However, a more recent synthesis of studies shows that custom-made insoles are not more effective for pain relief or functional improvement compared to off-the-shelf insoles, both in the short term (1.5 months) and long term (1 year) (Tran 2019). Off-the-shelf insoles can be purchased in any store (supermarket, pharmacy, sports or shoe store, etc.).

There is less evidence for the effectiveness of insoles compared to the evidence on the effect of braces/orthotics against bunion. In any case, off-the-shelf insoles are sufficient.

How can I shrink my bunions naturally?

Many of you are searching for a “natural” remedies for bunion:

  • bunion pain relief home remedies;
  • tailor’s bunion treatment home;
  • natural cure for bunions;
  • home remedies for bunions, etc.

There are no other “natural” treatments that are as or more effective in treating bunion than the ones we have already discussed in this blog post (exercices, orthosis, shoes), as concluded by the most recent studies (Hurn 2021, Ying 2021).

The following remedies may provide short-term pain relief due to the placebo effect:

  • Ointment
  • Essential oil
  • Green clay

However, our current understanding of the human body and the compositions of these products (ointment, essential oil, green clay) suggests that they will not effectively limit the potential worsening of the deformity of bunion.

Hallux valgus surgery: My opinion in 2023?

Here’s a video of me summarizing this section. However, it’s in French! You can display English subtitles by clicking on the gear icon (Subtitles>Auto-translate>English) 🙂

There are several types of hallux valgus surgeries (over 200 documented variations! Hernandez 2020), often performed under local anesthesia (= without general anesthesia):

  • Osteotomy
  • Minimally invasive techniques under radiography
  • Percutaneous technique under radiography

Here is some information to help you determine the relevance of undergoing surgery in your case, considering your current discomfort and expectations.

A study followed 209 people (average age 48 years, 93% women) with painful hallux valgus for one year. They were randomly assigned to different groups: some underwent osteotomy, some wore custom orthotics, and some were instructed not to undergo surgery or wear orthotics (potentially seeking other treatments) (Torkki 2001). Here is how these people progressed:

  • 4 people from the “no intervention” group eventually opted for surgery during the year due to significant pain.
  • At 6 months, walking pain had decreased more in the surgical group (-20 points on a 100-point scale) and the orthotic group (-14 points) compared to the “no intervention” group.
  • At 1 year, walking pain had decreased more in the surgical group than in the other two groups (similar magnitude).
  • At 1 year, respectively 83%, 46%, and 24% of the operated, orthotic, and “no intervention” groups reported improvement compared to the start of the study.

Some studies follow patients for several months or years after surgery (on average 2 years). Recurrence of hallux valgus occurs in 1/4 of operated patients (Ezzatvar 2021).

There are other potential complications that also depend on the technique used. If you are considering surgery and want to know the potential types of complications and their frequency in advance, you can ask your surgeon to provide you with that information.

Keep in mind that these complications are relatively rare, and the majority of people who undergo surgery do not experience them.

A study compilation lists complications after bunion using the percutaneous technique (Miranda 2021):

  • 18% of operated individuals experience joint stiffness
  • 15% experience bunion recurrence
  • 15% have a shorter metatarsal bone
  • 10% cannot tolerate the implanted material
  • 9% develop arthritis
  • 8% experience infection
  • 5% have pain in another toe

Some people may consider undergoing surgery for unilateral or bilateral hallux valgus. In the first year, pain is reduced more compared to doing nothing or wearing orthotics. However, it is unknown if the relief persists over time, and the magnitude of pain reduction is around -15 points/100. 1/4 of operated people experience bunion recurrence.

Summary: prevention and treatment of bunion, the opinion of a physical therapist

I understand that you are looking for a solution to no longer be bothered by your bunion, or at least significantly less bothered, in a lasting way. You want to experience less pain and have the ability to do everything you want.

Throughout this blog post, I have tried to present to you the rational and possible treatment options without surgery as clearly and objectively as possible. Based on this information, it is up to you to interpret and determine if something is relevant and appropriate for your specific case.

For those who are interested, here is my personal perspective on the management of bunion.

Based on our current knowledge of the human body, the causes of hallux valgus (largely genetic), and the available treatments, it seems that there is no “miracle” or definitive treatment for this foot problem. Even with surgery, recurrence is common (1/4 of patients within 2 years after surgery).

It is also important to keep in mind that the deformity does not necessarily worsen over time. For example, bunion worsened in only 1/3 of individuals around the age of 50 who were followed for 7 years. So, be optimistic! 🙂

The easiest thing to do, in my opinion, is to avoid wearing shoes that can exacerbate discomfort and deformity 👠.

If you want to do a bit more, you can mobilize your toe in the opposite direction of the deformity and maintain overall mobility.

You may consider using a toe separator or night orthosis as well.

However, it’s important not to expect significant results from these measures. If they are too burdensome, it’s better to refrain from using them.

My physiotherapist’s opinion on bunion surgery

This is my perspective on the management of bunion.


Here’s what I wanted to tell you about this! I wish you a very good recovery! Do you have any comments or questions? Your comments are welcome 🙂 !

If you feel the need to learn more about the recovery period after an injury, I wrote this guide in eBook format:

guide to recovery from PT

You may also like:


These articles have been identified and selected from Pubmed. This search engine provides access to the world’s largest database of healthcare studies.


Nix S, Smith M, Vicenzino B. Prevalence of hallux valgus in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysisJ Foot Ankle Res. 2010;3:21. Published 2010 Sep 27. doi:10.1186/1757-1146-3-21


Gordon D, Lewis TL, Ray R. The Impact of Hallux Valgus on Function and Quality of Life in Females. Foot Ankle Orthop. 2022 Jan 21;7(1):2473011421S00214. doi: 10.1177/2473011421S00214. PMID: 35097705; PMCID: PMC8793403.


Kuhn J, Alvi F. Hallux Valgus. [Updated 2021 Jul 25]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-.

Natural course

Menz HB, Marshall M, Thomas MJ, Rathod-Mistry T, Peat GM, Roddy E. Incidence and Progression of Hallux Valgus: a Prospective Cohort Study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021 Jul 15. doi: 10.1002/acr.24754. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34268894.

Sung KH, Kwon SS, Park MS, Lee KM, Ahn J, Lee SY. Natural progression of radiographic indices in juvenile hallux valgus deformity. Foot Ankle Surg. 2019 Jun;25(3):378-382. doi: 10.1016/j.fas.2018.02.001. Epub 2018 Feb 10. PMID: 30321975.

Shinohara M, Yamaguchi S, Ono Y, Kimura S, Kawasaki Y, Sugiyama H, Akagi R, Sasho T, Ohtori S. Anatomical factors associated with progression of hallux valgus. Foot Ankle Surg. 2022 Feb;28(2):240-244. doi: 10.1016/j.fas.2021.03.019. Epub 2021 Mar 26. PMID: 33814288.

Non surgical treatment of bunion

Hurn SE, Matthews BG, Munteanu SE, Menz HB. Effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for hallux valgus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021 Mar 25. doi: 10.1002/acr.24603. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33768721.

Ying J, Xu Y, István B, Ren F. Adjusted Indirect and Mixed Comparisons of Conservative Treatments for Hallux Valgus: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Apr 6;18(7):3841. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18073841. PMID: 33917568; PMCID: PMC8038851


Menz HB, Roddy E, Marshall M, Thomas MJ, Rathod T, Peat GM, Croft PR. Epidemiology of Shoe Wearing Patterns Over Time in Older Women: Associations With Foot Pain and Hallux ValgusJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Dec;71(12):1682-1687. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glw004. Epub 2016 Feb 1. PMID: 26834078; PMCID: PMC5106851.

Orthosis / splint

Kwan MY, Yick KL, Yip J, Tse CY. Hallux valgus orthosis characteristics and effectiveness: a systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2021 Aug 18;11(8):e047273. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047273. PMID: 34408037; PMCID: PMC8375760.


Hawke F, Burns J, Radford JA, du Toit V. Custom‐made foot orthoses for the treatment of foot pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD006801. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006801.pub2. Accessed 13 February 2022.

Tran K, Spry C. Custom-Made Foot Orthoses versus Prefabricated foot Orthoses: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2019 Sep 23. PMID: 31714699.


Torkki M, Malmivaara A, Seitsalo S, Hoikka V, Laippala P, Paavolainen P. Surgery vs Orthosis vs Watchful Waiting for Hallux Valgus: A Randomized Controlled TrialJAMA. 2001;285(19):2474–2480. doi:10.1001/jama.285.19.2474

Klugarova J, Hood V, Bath-Hextall F, Klugar M, Mareckova J, Kelnarova Z. Effectiveness of surgery for adults with hallux valgus deformity: a systematic review. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2017 Jun;15(6):1671-1710. doi: 10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-003422. PMID: 28628523.

Caravelli S, Mosca M, Massimi S, Costa GG, Lo Presti M, Fuiano M, Grassi A, Zaffagnini S. Percutaneous treatment of hallux valgus: What’s the evidence? A systematic review. Musculoskelet Surg. 2018 Aug;102(2):111-117. doi: 10.1007/s12306-017-0512-x. Epub 2017 Oct 28. PMID: 29081030.

Hernández-Castillejo LE, Martínez Vizcaíno V, Garrido-Miguel M, Cavero-Redondo I, Pozuelo-Carrascosa DP, Álvarez-Bueno C. Effectiveness of hallux valgus surgery on patient quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Orthop. 2020 Aug;91(4):450-456. doi: 10.1080/17453674.2020.1764193. Epub 2020 May 14. PMID: 32408787; PMCID: PMC8023907.

Complications : Ezzatvar Y, López-Bueno L, Fuentes-Aparicio L, Dueñas L. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors for Recurrence after Hallux Valgus Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Med. 2021 Dec 9;10(24):5753. doi: 10.3390/jcm10245753. PMID: 34945049; PMCID: PMC8708542

Miranda MAM, Martins C, Cortegana IM, Campos G, Pérez MFM, Oliva XM. Complications on Percutaneous Hallux Valgus Surgery: A Systematic Review. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2021 May-Jun;60(3):548-554. doi: 10.1053/j.jfas.2020.06.015. Epub 2020 Dec 8. PMID: 33579548.

Quality of Online Informations

Sari E, Umur LF. Quality Analysis of Hallux Valgus Videos on YouTube. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2021 Sep 1;111(5):Article_12. doi: 10.7547/20-191. PMID: 33620454.

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By Nelly Darbois

I love to write articles that are based on my experience as a physiotherapist and extensive research in the international scientific literature.

I live in the French Alps 🌞❄️ where I work as a physiotherapist and scientific editor for my own website, where you are.

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